Vici grant for project on litigation costs and funding

The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) has awarded Xandra Kramer a Vici grant of 1.5 million euros for the project 'Affordable access to justice: towards sustainable cost and funding mechanisms for civil litigation in Europe'. This grant will enable to further develop her research in the area of civil justice and to consolidate her research group in the coming five years. Vici is one of the largest scientific grants for individuals in the Netherlands and targets advanced researchers.

The project will assess new pathways to civil justice funding and cost schemes, with a view to developing a balanced financing system, thereby securing access to justice in Europe. We will analyse the development of (private) financing and cost mechanisms in several European jurisdictions and build on a framework for financing and cost rules that contributes to a sustainable European civil justice system.

The Vici grant builds on the present ERC Consolidator project Building EU Civil Justice. The new project kicked off on 1 December 2020.

See the press release by Erasmus School of Law.


Xandra Kramer is professor of Private Law at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and par-time professor of Private international law at Utrecht University (the Netherlands). She is fascinated by the cross-roads between economic efficiency and procedural fairness, the actual functioning of civil justice systems and its impact on litigants, transnational complex litigation and enforcement, and the harmonisation of EU private international law and civil procedure. Her research combines doctrinal legal research, comparative law, policy-oriented and (qualitative) empirical research. End 2016, she was awarded a prestigious ERC consolidator grant for her project Building EU civil justice: challenges of procedural innovations bridging access to justice. In 2019, she was elected member to the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW).

She studied law at Leiden University (cum laude), specialising in private international law, civil procedure, comparative law and philosophy (thesis awarded with thesis prize Leiden University). Her first (student) article was awarded the Ars Aequi prize (1996). She was as an assistant professor at Leiden University and obtained her Ph.D. on provisional measures and private international law in 2001. She worked as an associate professor at Erasmus School of Law and was appointed full professor in February 2011.

From 2013-2014, she held the TPR chair (endowed by the Belgian journal of private law) and was Visiting Professor Global Law School at Leuven University (Belgium). In 2014 and 2016, she was a visiting scholar at Stanford Law School, California.

Xandra conducts research and lectures in the area of private international law, international litigation, comparative law, arbitration, mediation, and European private law and has published numerous articles and several books in these areas. She was PI of a Vidi project funded by the Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research on Securing Quality in Cross-Border Enforcement (2011-2016).

She was project leader of several comparative and empirical studies for the Dutch Ministry of Justice, on international mass litigation and on debt collection (2010, 2012). She was scientific director of a study for the European Parliament on a European framework for private International Law (2012) and was commissioned to write a briefing note on a European Code of Private International Law (2012) and an in-depth analysis on the Future of Private International Law (2014). She has collaborated in international consortia on evaluation studies for the European Commission and has obtained a number of Action Grants from the European Commission.

She is a reporter of the ELI-Unidroit workgroup on European Rules of Civil Procedure (Provisional Measures), is co-reporter of an overarching working group that coordinates and consolidates the ELI-Unidroit Project.

She is editor of the Netherlands International Law Review (NILR), editor (formerly editor-in-chief) of the Dutch journal on Private International Law (NIPR), and of the Erasmus Law Review. She is the Dutch editor for (News and Views on Private International Law).

She has been a visiting professor and visiting scholar at different foreign universities and research institutes, including the University of Leuven (Belgium), the Foreign Trade University in Hanoi (Vietnam) and Koç University in Istanbul (Turkey), Stanford Law School (United States) and the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law in Hamburg (Germany). She is a member of the International Association of Procedural Law and fellow at the European Law Institute.

In addition to her academic work she has regularly provided expert opinions on case files. In 2007 she was appointed Deputy Judge at the District Court of Rotterdam.